The city of Paphos in Cyprus in Roman times

Author(s):  N.N. Bolgov, candidate of Sciences, Prof., Belgorod National Research University, Belgorod, Russia,

A.M. Bolgova, candidate of Sciences, associate Professor, Belgorod National Research University, Belgorod, Russia,

Issue:  Volume 46, № 3

Rubric:  Topical issues of world history

Annotation:  The paper attempts to give a general outline of the place and role of the city of Paphos in Cyprus in the history of the island in the Roman period. It is noted that in the Hellenistic and Roman periods, Paphos was the main city of Cyprus. To a large extent it was associated with the cult of Aphrodite of Pathos, spread throughout the Mediterranean. There were two cities - Paleo-Paphos and Nea Paphos, separated by a sacred road 60 stages long. Old Paphos was a religious center, New – the center of the civil administration. In the Roman period, the main buildings of New Paphos were built – Agora, Odeon, Asklepion - in the central part of the city, as well as the Roman Forum in the south-east. A characteristic feature of the topography of the city is the presence of large urban estates with mosaic floors - the House of Theseus (residence of the proconsul), the House of Dionysus, the House of Orpheus, the House of Aion. In the 4–5 centuries AD were built two major Christian basilicas – Chrysopolitissa and Limeniotissa. The city became an important center of the Christian church. It was the final destination of the apostles Paul and Barnabas. Bishop of Paphos was a member of the I Ecumenical Council. A series of earthquakes in the middle of IV. significantly damaged the city. This led to the transfer of the capital of the island to Salamis. But Paphos remained an important center and the second most important diocese of the Cyprus Church, which became autocephalous in 488. The history of Paphos in Roman times is not studied at all in Russian historiography. The impetus for writing this article was the holding of the I Summer Historical and Archeological School in Cyprus for teachers and students of the BelSU National Research University in September 2018 and the inclusion of the Cyprus subject matter in the research of the scientific direction of Belgorod State University «Classical and Byzantine Tradition»

Keywords:  Cyprus, Roman period, Paphos, island, history, city, archeology

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