The Influence of the Main Natural Factors on the Formation of Surface Flow of Melt Water in Forest-Reclaimed Agricultural Landscapes in the Forest-Steppe and Steppe Zones of the European Part of Russia

Author(s):  A.I. Petelko, Dr., FSC of agroecology RAS, Novosilskaya ZAGFES – branch of FSC of agroecology RAS, Mzensk, Russia,

V.I. Panov, candidate of Sciences, associate Professor, Federal scientific center for agro-ecology, integrated land reclamation and protective afforestation RAS, branch of FSC of agroecology RAS – Volga GFES, vil. Novoberyozovskij, Russia,

Issue:  Volume 43, № 1

Rubric:  Earth sciences

Annotation:  In the article, the connection of spring flow of melt water and other elements of the equation of water balance (moisture in the snow and soil water) pine natural factors-soil moisture, moisture in the snow cover, the depth of soil freezing. The results obtained by experimental setting full-scale experiments in the field water balance method on a specially equipped control and combined stock areas in forest landscapes (poles systems storehouse contoured forest strips) and unprotected fields (fields with no forest belts). During the 3-year period of research (2014–2016), all elements of the spring water balance – moisture in snow cover, absorption into the soil (infiltration), surface runoff – in two agricultural areas – in unprotected fields and in the forest-reclaimed agricultural landscape created on the Dokuchaev landscape-geographical moisture-saving principle-were obtained at the experimental facilities. The experimental results obtained for two natural-geographical zones of the southern slope of The Russian plain (European part of the Russian Federation) – the transitional part of the forest zone in the forest – steppe (Orel region) and black earth steppe (Samara region) – confirm the important role of the main natural factors (moisture in the snow, the humidity of the upper soil layer and the depth of freezing) on all elements of the water balance of melt water. During the observation period there were favorable weather conditions (average soil moisture, its weak and shallow freezing, high soil absorption capacity in the spring); surface runoff at the experimental facilities was not formed (there were low-water runoff years), which contributed to the complete absorption of all melt water. Forest reclamation field protection allows you to effectively and purposefully manage and convert elements of the water balance of melt water – additionally accumulate snow, insulate the soil from deep freezing, increase spring soil absorption capacity and General infiltration (water absorption in protected fields), reduce surface runoff. In forest – reclaimed agricultural landscapes, in comparison with unprotected fields (without forest strips), spring soil moisture can be increased by 45–70 mm and more.

Keywords:  soil, runoff, natural factors, snow removal, freezing, humidity, moisture reserves, water absorption.

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