The functioning of long-river landscapes in the basin of lake Baikal at intensive anthropogenic load

Author(s):  Zhanna V. Atutova,, candidate of Sciences, no, V.B. Sochava Institute of Geography SB RAS, Irkutsk, Russia, senior researcher of the laboratory of geomorphology,

Issue:  Volume 44, № 1

Rubric:  Earth sciences

Annotation:  Nature management is main criterion for the formation of the natural environment under the conditions of an increasing anthropogenic pressure on landscapes. The features of the modern functioning of the valley landscapes of the Baikal coastal territories are considered. The identification of the landscape-ecological state of the valley complexes of the rivers flowing into the lake Baikal is the main goal of the work. The analysis of anthropogenic transformation of the landscapes of the Goloustnaya river basin is carried out. Based on a retrospective analysis of the economic development of the territory, three main stages of nature management are identified. It differs in the types of production activities and the intensity of the pressure on the landscape. Modern subtaiga light coniferous and piedmont steppe landscape complexes of the lower reaches of the river, adjacent to the water area of Lake Baikal, are most susceptible to recreational and agricultural activities. The implementation of this activity has led to adverse environmental conditions. The reasons are a decrease in natural species biodiversity (up to the threat of the complete destruction of unique nature objects), the organization of unauthorized landfills, complicated by the lack of measures for the treatment of solid household waste, environmental pollution by livestock waste, the lack of a system for the removal and treatment of surface runoff, and careless handling fire at risk of fires. In this situation, it is necessary to carry out measures to increase the stability of the landscape of river valleys to anthropogenic impacts.

Keywords:  Baikal lake, river basin, valley complexes, history of nature management, anthropogenic transformation, environmental conditions

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